Nowadays, percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is widely used treatment method recommended for the patients after vertebral body fracture in the course of osteoporosis and some malignant tumors or primary neoplasms. PV is an example of small-invasive surgery procedure often giving spectacular clinical effect as early as in the first 24 hours after the surgery. However, in spite of clinical benefits, the method may also cause some serious adverse effects and complications. The most common complication is cement leakage outside augmented vertebral body. The aim of the study was to retrospectively assess vertebral fracture treatment effectiveness using PV as well as to analyze complications frequency. The study involved 190 surgical procedures (214 implantations) performed between 2003 and 2007. Observed complications were divided into the following groups: cannula introduction technique-related (bleeding, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, neurologic damages), cement implantation-related (asymptomatic and symptomatic cement leakage) and general complications (embolism, infection). The most common complication was asymptomatic cement leakage (18%). Obtained results were compared with published data. We discussed the influence of surgical technique modifications and changes in the used cements parameters on decrease of complications frequency.