Nanotechnology has a wide range of innovative uses, including the use of nanoparticles as scaff olds to improve the interface between orthopaedic implants and native bone. Nanotechnology has the potential to transform orthopaedic surgery diagnosis and treatment, however the long-term health implications of nanomaterials are little understood, and further study on clinical safety is needed. Nanotechnology is a relatively newcomer to orthopaedic research, diagnostics, and treatment. It has been able to change the science and practise of orthopaedic care in the short period it has been studied and utilised. Many conventional therapies are being replaced, as nanotechnology provides ways to treat the human body in ways that are more precise, better for bone growth, and theoretically safer, at least in terms of infection rates and necessity of re-operations.